Saturday, March 31, 2012

Caño Cristales, Columbia

Caño Cristales (also known as the “river of five colors”,"the rainbow river" or “the river that ran away from paradise”) is a Columbian river located in a remote, isolated area not easily accessible, however tourists can fly into the nearby town of La Macarena. From there it is a short trip into “Serrania de la Macarena,” the national park in which Caño Cristales is located. The 20-meter-wide, 100-meter-long wonder river is only accessible by horse or mule and only a few travel agencies offer tours.

For most of the year, Caño Cristales is indistinguishable from any other river: a bed of rocks covered in mosses visible below a clear current. The river’s flow of water regulates the amount of sunlight reaching the algae, and during the rainy season, it keeps the sun’s rays from reaching the bottom. During the dry season, the water is too shallow to sustain river life, but between these two seasons, or from September through November, conditions are just right for the plant that lines the river floor(Macarenia clavigera) to turn a brilliant red. It is offset by splotches of yellow and green sand, blue water, and a thousand shades in between.

LINK(in Spanish)

Info from here, here and here

Friday, March 30, 2012

Lake Retba, Senegal

In Senegal, some 20 miles from the capital of Dakar, lies the Pink Lake('Lac Rose' in French, Lake Retba to the locals). It is shallow and warm with a high salt content(almost 40%), making everything buoyant. During the week, the salt collectors are busy crushing the bottom of the lake, which consists of a thick crust of salt that they gather to sell. They have to cover their skin in shea butter, in order to work in the extreme heat. The lake is particularly spectacular at dawn and dusk. Cyanobacteria in the salty waters produce the unique vibrant pink color. The lake is the remains of a fossil sea that once occupied all of Sénégal, and is now a vital source of income and a tourist attraction. 
Photo credit Ratnikoff


Info from here and here

Manual of Surgery

Photos taken from the Manual of Surgery Volume 1: Sixth Edition is a volume of surgical lessons that were learned in the hard school of war. 

"the surgery of warfare is a thing apart from the general surgery of civil life, and the exhaustive literature now available on every aspect of it makes it unnecessary that it should receive detailed consideration in a manual for students. In preparing this new edition, therefore, we have endeavoured to incorporate only such additions to our knowledge and resources as our experience leads us to believe will prove of permanent value in civil practice."

Actinomycosis of Maxilla. The disease spread to opposite side; finally implicated base of skull, and proved fatal.
Acute Bed-Sores over right buttock.
Bazin's Disease in a girl aged. 16
Cancrum Oris
Carbuncle of seventeen days' duration in a woman aged. 57.
Carcinoma of breast with cancerous ulcer.
Carpal ganglion in a woman aged 25.
Chondro-Sarcoma of scapula in a man aged 63; removal of the scapula was followed two years later by metastases and death.
Chondroma of metacarpal bone of thumb.
Chronic Hodgkin's Disease in a boy aged 11.
Cicatricial contraction following severe burn.
Cirsoid aneurysm of forehead in a boy aged 10.
Cirsoid aneurysm of orbit and face, which developed after a blow on the orbit with a cricket ball.
Dermoid cyst of ovary showing teeth in its interior.
Diffuse Lipomatosis of the neck.
Diffuse melanotic cancer of symphatics of skin secondary to a growth in the sole of the foot.
Elephantiasis in 45-year old woman.
Elephantiasis Neuromatosa in a woman aged 28
Elephantiasis of  the penis and scrotum
Embolic gangrene of hand and arm.
Extensive Varix of internal saphena system on left leg
Facies of inherited syphilis
Fungating sarcoma of the arm.
Ganglion on lateral aspect of knee in a young woman.
Gangrene of the terminal phalanx of index-finger, following cellulitis of the hand resulting from a scratch on the palm
Gouty Disease of bursæ in a tailor. The bursal tumours were almost entirely composed of urate of soda.
Innominate Aneurysm in a woman, aged. 47, eight months after treatment.
Lymphadenoma (Hodgkin's Disease) affecting the left side of the neck and left axilla, in a 44-year-old woman
Malignant Pustule, fourteen days after infection, showing black eschar in process of separation.
Melanotic Cancer of forehead with metastases in lymph vessels and glands.
Multiple Cartilaginous Exostoses(legs of patient below)
Multiple Cartilaginous Exostoses in a man aged. 27
Multiple chondromas in hand of an 8-year-old boy
Multiple Chondromas of phalanges and metacarpals in a ten-year-old
Multiple Neuro-fibromas of Skin (Molluscum fibrosum, or Recklinghausen's disease)
Multiple Sebaceous cysts or Wens; the larger ones are of many years' duration.
Pedunculated Lipoma of buttock
Recurrent Keloid in scar left by operation for tuberculous glands
Rodent Cancer of fifteen years' duration, which has destroyed the contents of the Orbit.
Sebaceous horn growing from auricle.
Shortening of Middle Finger of Adult, the result of Tuberculous Dactylitis in childhood
Tertiary Syphilitic Ulceration in region of knee and on both thumbs of a 37-year-old woman
Thoracic Aneurysm, threatening to rupture externally.
Tuberculous Abscess in right lumbar region in a woman aged thirty.
Tuberculous Axillary Glands
Tuberculous Cervical Gland with abscess formation in subcutaneous cellular tissue.
Tuberculous Elephantiasis
Ulcerating gumma of the lips.
Ulceration of nineteen year's duration in a woman æt. 24, the subject of inherited syphilis, showing active ulceration and cicatricial contraction.
Zanthoma of the hands in a girl aged 14, showing multiple subcutaneous tumours
Zanthoma showing subcutaneous tumours on buttocks.
Ulcerated Chilblains on the fingers of a child.

All photos and info from here